There are many different species of Pine trees from which essential oils are produced, however the profile I am highlighting here is for Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris) belonging to the Pinaceae Family. This large evergreen reaches heights of between 65 – 115 feet and is native to Europe and Asia
A clear essential oil is steam distilled from the twigs and needles and its major components include: Monoterpenes 50 – 97% (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, delta-3-carene, camphene, phellandrene, dipentene, terpinenes, myrcene, sabinene); Alcohols 5% (borneol, terpinene-4-ol cadinol); Sesquiterpenes(caryophyllene, cadinene, copaene, guaiene, farnesene).
Scotch Pine is used as a fragrance ingredient in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions and perfumes with a maximum use level of 1.2% in perfumes.
Pine has a fresh, strong, balsamic aroma and blends well with bergamot, cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, juniper, lavender, lemon, niaouli, marjoram, rosemary and tea tree. It has anti-fungal, anti-neuralgic, anti-rheumatic, anti-septic, antiviral, deodorant, decongestant, insecticidal and warming properties.
Psychologically, pine is helpful for fatigue, nervous exhaustion, debility & neuralgia and stress related conditions. On the physiological level it helps fight any type of respiratory infection. It encourages the release of mucus, clears the sinuses, eases coughing and improves breathing. It can also be helpful in soothing muscle aches and pains and stiffness in the joints.
Contraindications:. Generally considered non-toxic, non-irritating, non-sensitizing and non-phototoxic although it has been demonstrated to be sensitizing to certain individuals. Due to the high monoterpene content this oil can oxidize quite quickly so always ensure that it is fresh and kept under the best conditions.
Albert Y. Leung & Steven Foster , Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, 1996
Beverley Hawkins, Aromatherapy 201 Course 1999 revised 2000…2011